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2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 1999, 1995


Bear Ears

Arnaudo, M.E., Bona, P., Soibelzon, L.H., and Schubert, B.W. 2016. Anatomical study of the auditory region of Arctotherium tarijense (Ursidae, Tremarctinae), an extinct short-faced bear from the Pleisotcene of South America. Journal of Anatomy, 229, 825-837.

Platypus Morphology

Asahara, M., Koizumi, M., Macrini, T.E., Hand, S.J., and Archer, M. 2016. Comparative cranial morphology in living and extinct platypuses: feeding behavior, electroreception, and loss of teeth. Science Advances, 2, e1601329.

Earliest Known Lissamphibian

Ascarrunz, E., Rage, J.-C., Legreneur, P., and Laurin, M. 2016. Triadobatrachus massinoti, the earliest known lissamphibian (Vertebrata: Tetrapoda) re-examined by µCT scan, and the evolution of trunk length in batrachians. Contributions to Zoology, 85, 201-234.

Cranial Endocasts

Balanoff, A.M., Bever, G.S., Colbert, M.W., Clarke, J.A., Field, D.J., Gignac, P.M., Ksepka, D.T., Ridgely, R.C., Smith, N.A., Torres, C.R., Walsh, S., and Witmer, L.M. 2016. Best practices for digitally constructing endocranial casts: examples from birds and their dinosaurian relatives. Journal of Anatomy, 229, 173-190.

Mammal Brains

Benoit, J., Manger, P.R., and Rubidge, B.S. 2016. Palaeoneurological clues to the evolution of defining mammalian soft tissue traits. Scientific Reports, 6, 25604.

Bird Skulls

Bhullar, B.-A., Hanson, M., Fabbri, M., Pritchard, A., Bever, G.S., and Hoffman, E. 2016. How to make a bird skull: major transitions in the evolution of the avian cranium, paedomorphosis, and the beak as a surrogate hand. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 56, 389-403.

Tenrec Jaw Anatomy

Brocklehurst, R.J., Crumpton, N., Button, E., and Asher, R.J. 2016. Jaw anatomy of Potamogale velox (Tenrecidae, Afrotheria) with a focus on cranial arteries and the coronoid canal in mammals. PeerJ, e1906.

Crocodylian Sinuses

Brusatte, S.L., Muir, A., Young, M.T., Walsh, S., Steel, L., and Witmer, L.M. 2016. The braincase and neurosensory anatomy of an Early Jurassic marine crocodylomorph: implications for crocodylian sinus evolution and sensory transitions. The Anatomical Record, 299, 1511-1530.

Turtle Taxonomy

Cadena, E. 2016. Palaeoamyda messeliana nov. comb. (Testudines, Pan-Trionychidae) from the Eocene Messel Pit and Geiseltal localities, Germany, taxonomic and phylogenetic insights. PeerJ, 4, e2647.

Sauropod Skulls

Carabajal, A.P., Canale, J.I., and Haluza, A. 2016. New rebbachisaurid cranial remains (Sauropoda, Diplodocoidea) from the Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina, and the first endocranial description for a South American representative of the clade. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 36, e1167067.

Coupled Ears

Carr, C.E., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., and Bierman, H. 2016. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians. Biological Cybernetics, 110, 291-302.

Crocodylian Ornamentation

Clarac, F., Souter, T., Cubo, J., de Buffrénil, V., Brochu, C., and Cornette, R . 2016. Does skull morphology constrain bone ornamentation? A morphometric analysis in the Crocodylia. Journal of Anatomy, 229, 292-301.

Cranial Vault Thickness

Copes, L.E., and Kimbel, W.H. 2016. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones. Journal of Human Evolution, 90, 120-134.

Giant Amphibians

Fortuny, J., Marcé-Nogué, J., Steyer, J.-S., de Esteban-Trivigno, S., Mujal, E., and Gil, L. 2016. Comparative 3D analyses and palaeoecology of giant early amphibians (Temnospondyli: Stereospondyli). Scientific Reports, 6, 30387.

Fossil Primates

Fulwood, E.L., Boyer, D.M., and Kay, R.F. 2016. Stem members of Platyrrhini are distinct from catarrhines in at least one derived cranial feature. Journal of Human Evolution, 100, 16-24.

Musteloid Carnivores

Geraads, D., and Spassov, N. 2016. Musteloid carnivores from the upper Miocene of South-Western Bulgaria, and the phylogeny of the Mephitidae. Geodiversitas, 38, 543-558.

Paleo Techniques

Hegna, T.A., and Johnson, R.E. 2016. Preparation of fossil and osteological 3D-printable models from freely available CT-scan movies. Journal of Paleontological Techniques, 16, 1-10.

Woodpecker Tongues

Jung, J.-Y., Naleway, S.E., Yaraghi, N.A., Herrera, S., Sherman, V.R., Bushong, E.A., Ellisman, M.H., Kisailus, D., and McKittrick, J. 2016. Structural analysis of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in a woodpecker. Acta Biomaterialia, 37, 1-13.

Digital Penguins

Kellnhofer, P., Ritschel, T., Myszkowski, K., and Seidel, H.-P. 2016. Transformation-aware perceptual image metric. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 25, 053014.

Crocodile Schnozzels

Klenner, S., Witzel, U., Paris, F., and Distler, C. 2016. Structure and function of the septum nasi and the underlying tension chord in crocodylians. Journal of Anatomy, 228, 113-124.

Early Mammal Jaws

Lautenschlager, S., Gill, P., Luo, Z.-X., Fagan, M.J., and Rayfield, E.J. 2016. Morphological evolution of the mammalian jaw adductor complex. Biological Reviews, 92, 1910-1940.

Chicken Heads

Linde-Medina, M. 2016. Testing the cranial evolutionary allometric 'rule' in Galliformes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 29, 1873-1878.

Mammal Skulls

Linde-Medina, M., Boughner, J.C., Santana, S.E., and Diogo, R. 2016. Are more diverse parts of the mammalian skull more labile? Ecology and Evolution, 6, 2318-2324.

Alligator Gar

Long, J.M., and Snow, R.A. 2016. Ontogenetic development of otoliths in alligator gar. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 145, 537-544.

Amphisbaenian Evolution

Müller, J., Hipsley, C.A., and Maisano, J.A. 2016. Skull osteology of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium (Reptilia, Squamata) suggests convergent evolution and reversals of fossorial adaptations in worm lizards. Journal of Anatomy, 229, 615-630.

Snake Mandibles

Palci, A., Lee, M.S.Y., and Hutchinson, M.N. 2016. Patterns of postnatal ontogeny of the skull and lower jaw of snakes as revealed by micro-CT scan data and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Journal of Anatomy, 229, 723-754.

Cat Noses

Pang, B., Yee, K.K., Lischka, F.W., Rawson, N.E., Haskins, M.E., Wysocki, C.J., Craven, B.A., and Van Valkenburgh, B. 2016. The influence of nasal airflow on respiratory and olfactory epithelial distribution in felids. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219, 1866-1874.

Tiny Salamanders

Parra-Olea, G., Rovito, S.M., Garcia-Paris, M., Maisano, J.A., Wake, D.B., and Hanken, J. 2016. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico. PeerJ, 4, e2694.

Ankylosaur Skulls

Paulina-Carabajal, A., Lee, Y.-N., and Jacobs, L.L. 2016. Endocranial morphology of the primitive nodosaurid dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli from the Early Cretaceous of North America. PLoS ONE, 11(3), e0150845.

Digital Turtles

Polly, P.D., Stayton, C.T., Dumont, E.R., Pierce, S.E., Rayfield, E.J., and Angielczyk, K.D. 2016. Combining geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis with evolutionary modeling: towards a synthesis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1111225.

Modern Taxonomy

Pyle, R.L. 2016. Towards a global names architecture: the future of indexing scientific names. ZooKeys, 550, 261-281.

Platypus Mandibles

Rich, T.H., Hopson, J.A., Gill, P.G., Trusler, P., Rogers-Davidson, S., Morton, S., Cifelli, R.L., Pickering, D., Kool, L., Siu, K., Burgmann, F.A., Senden, T., Evans, A.R., Wagstaff, B.E., Seegets-Villiers, D., Corfe, I.J., Flannery, T.F., Walker, K., Musser, A.M., Archer, M., Pian, R., and Vickers-Rich, P. 2016. The mandible and dentition of the Early Cretaceous monotreme Teinolophos trusleri. Alcheringa, 40, 475-501.

Primate Eyes

Rosenberger, A.L., Smith, T.D., DeLeon, V.B., Burrows, A.M., Schenck, R., and Halenar, L.B. 2016. Eye size and set in small-bodied fossil primates: a three-dimensional method. The Anatomical Record, 299, 1671-1689.

Fossil Forensics

Rowe, T.B., Luo, Z.-X., Ketcham, R.A., Maisano, J.A., and Colbert, M.W. 2016. X-ray computed tomography datasets for forensic analysis of vertebrate fossils. Nature Scientific Data, 3, 160040.

Vombatiform Marsupials

Sharp, A.C. 2016. A quantitative comparative analysis of the size of the frontoparietal sinuses and brain in vombatiform marsupials. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 74, 331-342.

Amphisbaenian Evolution

Talanda, M. 2016. Cretaceous roots of the amphisbaenian lizards. Zoologica Scripta, 45, 1-8.

Amphicyonid Evolution

Tomiya, S., and Tseng, J. 2016. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis‘ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora). Royal Society Open Science, 3, 160518.

Hyena Socialization

Vinuesa, V., Iurino, D.A., Madurell-Malapeira, J., Jinyi, L., Fortuny, J., Sardella, R., and Alba, D.M. 2016. Inferences of social behavior in bone-cracking hyaenids (Carnivora, Hyaenidae) based on digital paleoneurological techniques: implications for human-carnivoran interactions in the Pleistocene. Quaternary International, 413(B), 7-14.

Primate Skulls

Wang, Q., and Dechow, P.C. 2016. Divided zygomatic bone in primates with implications of skull morphology and biomechanics. The Anatomical Record, 299, 1801-1829.

Giant Opossums

Wilson, G.P., Ekdale, E.G., Hoganson, J.W., Calede, J.J., and Vander Linden, A. 2016. A large carnivorous mammal from the Late Cretaceous and the North American origin of marsupials. Nature Communications, 7, 13734.


Monitor Lizard

Aguilar, R.F., Garner, M.M., and Yoshicedo, J.N. 2015. Resonancia magnética y tomografía computarizada para el diagnóstico de inestabilidad vertebral y tetraparesia aguda en un dragón de Komodo adulto (Varanus komodensis). Clinica Veterinaria, 1, 1-9.

Stem Turtle

Bever, G.S., Lyson, T.R., Field, D.J., and Bhullar, B-A.S. 2015. Evolutionary origin of the turtle skull. Nature, 525, 239-242.

Bird Beaks

Bhullar, B-A.S., Morris, Z.S., Sefton, E.M., Tok, A., Tokita, M., Namkoong, B., Camacho, J., Burnham, D.A., and Abzhanov, A. 2015. A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history. Evolution, 69, 1665-1677.

Aligator Hearing

Bierman, H.S., and Carr, C.E. 2015. Sound localization in the alligator. Hearing Research, 329, 11-20.

Aligator Skulls

Blanco, R.E., Jones, W.W., and Villamil, J. 2015. The 'death roll' of giant fossil crocodyliforms (Crocodylomorpha: Neosuchia): allometric and skull strength analysis. Historical Biology, 27, 514-524.

Fossil Turtle

Cadena, E.A., and Jaramillo, C.A. 2015. The first fossil skull of Chelus (Pleurodira: Chelidae, Matamata turtle) from the early Miocene of Colombia. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.2.32A, 1-10.

Snake Evolution

Caldwell, M.W., Nydam, R.L., Palci, A., and Apesteguia, S. 2015. The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution. Nature Communications, 6, 5996.

Palawan Monitor

Conrad, J.L. 2015. Skeletons of the little-known Palawan monitor, Varanus palawanensis (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of Herpetology, 49, 485-490.

Fossil Casquehead Lizard

Conrad, J.L. 2015. A new Eocene casquehead lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0127900.

Cretaceous Gekkonomorph

Conrad, J.L., and Daza, J.D. 2015. Naming and rediagnosing the Cretaceous gekkonomorph (Reptilia, Squamata) from Öösh (Övörkhangai, Mongolia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35, e980891.

Carnivore Sinuses

Curtis, A.A., Lai, G., Wei, F., and Van Valkenburgh, B. 2015. Repeated loss of frontal sinuses in arctoid carnivorans. Journal of Morphology, 276, 22-32.

Tokay Gecko

Daza, J.D., Mapps, A.A., Lewis, P.J., Thies, M.L., and Bauer, A.M. 2015. Peramorphic traits in the tokay gecko skull. Journal of Morphology, 276, 915-928.

Armored Fish

Duro-Royo, J., Zolotovsky, K., Mogas-Soldevila, L., Varshney, S., Oxman, N., Boyce, M.C., and Ortiz, C. 2015. MetaMesh: a hierarchical computational model for design and fabrication of biomimetic armor surfaces. Computer-Aided Design, 60, 14-27.

Whale Evolution

Fahlke, J.M., and Hampe, O. 2015. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution. The Science of Nature, 102, 58.

Digital Armadillos

Gaffling, S., Daum, V., Steidl, S., Maier, A., Köstler, H., and Hornegger, J. 2015. A Gauss-Seidel iteration scheme for reference-free 3-D histological image reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 34, 514-530.

Digital Sturgeons

Hilton, E.J., Schnell, N.K., and Konstantinidis, P. 2015. When tradition meets technology: systematic morphology of fishes in the early 21st century. Copeia, 103, 858-873.

Woodpecker Skulls

Liu, Y., Qiu, X., Zhang, X., and Yu, T.X. 2015. Response of woodpecker's head during pecking process simulated by material point method. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0122677.

Elephant Seal

Loza, C.M., Scarano, A.C., Soibelzon, L.H., Negrete, J., and Carlini, A.A. 2015. Morphology of the tympanic-basicranial region in Mirounga leonina (Phocidae, Carnivora), postnatal ontogeny and sexual dimorphism. Journal of Anatomy, 226, 354-372.

Salamander Evolution

Marjanović, D., and Witzmann, F. 2015. An extremely peramorphic newt (Urodela: Salamandridae: Pleurodelini) from the latest Oligocene of Germany, and a new phylogenetic analysis of extant and extinct salamandrids. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0137068.

Crocodilian Skulls

McCurry, M.R., Evans, A.R., and McHenry, C.R. 2015. The sensitivity of biological finite element models to the resolution of surface geometry: a case study of crocodilian crania. PeerJ, 3, e988.

Varanid Lizards

McCurry, M.R., Mahony, M., Clausen, P.D., Quayle, M.R., Walmsley, C.W., Jessop, T.S., Wroe, S., Richards, H., and McHenry, C.R. 2015. The relationship between cranial stucture, biomechanical performance and ecological diversity in varanoid lizards. PLoS ONE, 10(6),

Lizard Feeding

Natchev, N., Tzankov, N., Vergilov, V., Kummer, S., and Handschuh, S. 2015. Functional morphology of a highly specialised pivot joint in the cranio-cervical complex of the minute lizard Ablepharus kitaibelii in relation to feeding ecology and behaviour. Contributions to Zoology, 84, 13-23.


Ord, T.J., Klomp, D.A., Garcia-Porta, J., and Hagman, M. 2015. Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 28, 1948-1964.

Primate Phylogeny

Pattinson, D.J., Thompson, R.S., Piotrowski, A.K., and Asher, R.J. 2015. Phylogeny, paleontology, and primates: do incomplete fossils bias the tree of life? Systematic Biology, 64, 169-186.

Digging Eutherians

Piras, P., Sansalone, G., Teresi, L., Moscato, M., Profico, A., Eng, R., Cox, T.C., Loy, A., Colangelo, P., and Kotsakis, T. 2015. Digging adaptation in insectivorous subterranean eutherians. The enigma of Mesoscalops montanensis unveiled by geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis. Journal of Morphology, 276, 1157-1171.

Fossil Lobe-Finned Fish

Porro, L.B., Rayfield, E.J., and Clack, J.A. 2015. Computed tomography, anatomical description and three-dimensional reconstruction of the lower jaw of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves, 1881 from the Upper Devonian of Canada. Palaeontology, 58, 1031-1047.

Herbivorous Marsupials

Sharp, A.C. 2015. Comparative finite element analysis of the cranial performance of four herbivorous marsupials. Journal of Morphology, 276, 1230-1243.

Penguin Evolution

Tambussi, C.P., Degrange, F.J., and Ksepka, D.T. 2015. Endocranial anatomy of Antarctic Eocene stem penguins: implications for sensory system evolution in Sphenisciformes (Aves). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35, e981635.

Xenarthran Brains

Tambusso, P.S., and Farińa, R.A. 2015. Digital cranial endocast of Pseudoplohophorus absolutus (Xenarthra, Cingulata) and its systematic and evolutionary implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35, e967853.

It's a Bird!

Varricchio, D.J., Balanoff, A.M., and Norell, M.A. 2015. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128458.

Natural Armor

Varshney, S., Song, J., Li, Y., Boyce, M.C., and Ortiz, C. 2015. Morphometric structural diversity of a natural armor assembly investigated by 2D continuum strain analysis. Journal of Structural Biology, 192, 487-499.

Hyena Skulls

Vinuesa, V., Madurell-Malapeira, J., Fortuny, J., and Alba, D.M. 2015. The endocranial morphology of the Plio-Pleistocene bone-cracking hyena Pliocrocuta perrieri: behavioral implications. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 22, 421-434.

African Whales

Wichura, H., Jacobs, L.L., Lin, A., Polcyn, M.J., Manthi, F.K., Winkler, D.A., Strecker, M.R., and Clemens, M. 2015. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 3910-3915.

Snake Evolution

Yi, H., and Norell, M.A. 2015. The burrowing origin of modern snakes. Science Advances, 1, e1500743.


Fossil Marsupial

Attard, M.R.G., Parr, W.C.H., Wilson, L.A.B., Archer, M., Hand, S.J., Rogers, T.L., and Wroe, S. 2014. Virtual reconstruction and prey size preference in the Mid Cenozoic thylacinid, Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia). PLoS ONE, 9(4), e93088.

Carnivoran Sinuses

Curtis, A.A., and Van Valkenburgh, B. 2014. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora. The Anatomical Record, 297, 2047-2064.

Turtle Ontogeny

Fish, J.F., and Stayton, C.T. 2014. Morphological and mechanical changes in juvenile red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) shells during ontogeny. Journal of Morphology, 275, 391-397.

Fossil Whale

Geisler, J.H., Colbert, M.W., and Carew, J.L. 2014. A new fossil species supports an early origin for toothed whale echolocation. Nature, 508, 383-386.

Fossil Monotreme

Hoffman, S., O'Connor, P.M., Kirk, E.C., Wible, J.R., and Krause, D.W. 2014. Endocranial and inner ear morphology of Vintana sertichi (Mammalia, Gondwanatheria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(S1), 110-136.

Eocene Primate

Kirk, E.C., Daghighi, P., Macrini, T.E., Bhullar, B-A.S., and Rowe, T.B. 2014. Cranial anatomy of the Duchesnean primate Rooneyia viejaensis: new insights from high resolution computed tomography. Journal of Human Evolution, 74, 82-95.

Ediacaran Fossil

Meyer, M., Elliott, D., Wood, A.D., Polys, N.F., Colbert, M., Maisano, J.A., Vickers-Rich, P., Hall, M., Hoffman, K.H., Schneider, G., and Xiao, S. 2014. Three-dimensional microCT analysis of the Ediacara fossil Pteridinium simplex sheds new light on its ecology and phylogenetic affinity. Precambrian Research, 249, 79-87.

Fossil Marsupial

O'Meara, R.N., and Thompson, R.S. 2014. Were there Miocene meridiolestidans? Assessing the phylogenetic placement of Necrolestes patagonensis and the presence of a 40 million year meridiolestidan ghost lineage. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 21, 271-284.

Snake Evolution

Palci, A., and Caldwell, M.W. 2014. The upper Cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901, and the crista circumfenestralis of snakes. Journal of Morphology, 275, 1187-1200.

Primate Evolution

Pattinson, D.J., Thompson, R.S., Piotrowski, A.K., and Asher, R.J. 2014. Phylogeny, paleontology, and primates: do incomplete fossils bias the tree of life? Systematic Biology, 64, 169-186.

Fossil Snake

Pritchard, A.C., McCartney, J.A., Krause, D.W., and Kley, N.J. 2014. New snakes from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Basin, Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34, 1080-1093.

Deer Noses

Ranslow, A.N., Richter, J.P., Neuberger, T., Van Valkenburgh, B., Rumple, C.R., Quigley, A.P., Pang, B., Krane, M.H., and Craven, B.A. 2014. Reconstruction and morphometric analysis of the nasal airway of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and implications regarding respiratory and olfactory airflow. The Anatomical Record, 297, 2138-2147.

Marmoset Noses

Smith, T.D., Eiting, T.P., Bonar, C.J., and Craven, B.A. 2014. Nasal morphometry in marmosets: loss and redistribution of olfactory surface area. The Anatomical Record, 297, 2093-2104.

Carnivoran Noses

Van Valkenburgh, B., Pang, B., Bird, D., Curtis, A., Yee, K., Wysocki, C., and Craven, B.A. 2014. Respiratory and olfactory turbinals in feliform and caniform carnivorans: the influence of snout length. The Anatomical Record, 297, 2065-2079.


Theropod Brains

Bever, G.S., Brusatte, S.L., Carr, T.D., Xu, X., Balanoff, A.M., and Norell, M.A. 2013. The braincase anatomy of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur Alioramus (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 376, 1-72.

Theropod Brains

Bever, G.S., Brusatte, S.L., Carr, T.D., Xu, X., Balanoff, A.M., and Norell, M.A. 2013. The braincase anatomy of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur Alioramus (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 376, 1-72.

Chinese Turtles

Brinkman, D.B, Eberth, D.A., Xu, X., Clark, J.M., and Wu, X.-C. 2013. Turtles from the Jurassic Shishugou Formation of the Junggar Basin, People's Republic of China, with comments on the basicranial region of basal eucryptodires, p. 147-172. In Brinkman, D.B., Holroyd, P.A., and Gardner, J.D., editors, Morphology and Evolution of Turtles. Springer.

Fossil Gekkotan

Daza, J.D., Bauer, A.M., and Snively, E. 2013. Gobekko cretacicus (Reptilia: Squamata) and its bearing on the interpretation of gekkotan affinities. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 167, 430-448.

New Pachycephalosaur

Evans, D.E., Schott, R.K., Larson, D.W., Brown, C.M., and Ryan, M.J. 2013. The oldest North American pachycephalosaurid and the hidden diversity of small-bodied ornithischian dinosaurs. Nature Communications, 4, 1828.

Snake Evolution

Palci, A., Caldwell, M.W., and Nydam, R.L. 2013. Reevaluation of the anatomy of the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) hind-limbed marine fossil snakes Pachyrhachis, Haasiophis, and Eupodophis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33, 1328-1342.

Porpoise Sinuses

Racicot, R.A., and Berta, A. 2013. Comparative morphology of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) pterygoid sinuses: phylogenetic and functional implications. Journal of Morphology, 274, 49-62.

Turtle Shells

Rivera, G., and Stayton, C.T. 2013. Effects of asymmetry on the strength of the chelonian shell: a comparison of three species. Journal of Morphology, 274, 901-908.

Macrostomatan Evolution

Scanferla, A., Zaher, H., Novas, F.E., de Muizon, C., and Céspedes, R. 2013. A new snake skull from the Paleocene of Bolivia sheds light on the evolution of macrostomatans. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e57583.

Teeth and Feeding Ecology

Stynder, D.D., and Kupczik, K. 2013. Tooth root morphology in the Early Pliocene African bear Agriotherium africanum (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) and its implications for feeding ecology. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 20, 227-237.

Bone-cracking Hypercarnivores

Tseng, Z.J. 2013. Testing adaptive hypotheses of convergence with functional landscapes: a case study of bone-cracking hypercarnivores. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e65305.

Crocodile Jaws

Walmsley, C.W., Smits, P.D., Quayle, M.R., McCurry, M.R., Richards, H.S., Oldfield, C.C., Wroe, S., Clausen, P.D., and McHenry, C.R. 2013. Why the long face? The mechanics of mandibular symphysis proportions in crocodiles. PLoS One, 8(1), e53873.

Turtle Ears

Willis, K.L., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Ketten, D.R., and Carr, C.E. 2013. Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for Testudines. PLoS One, 8(1), e54086.

Venom Grooves

Yi, H.-Y., and Norell, M.A. 2013. New materials of Estesia mongoliensis (Squamata: Anguimorpha) and the evolution of venom grooves in lizards. American Museum Novitates, 3767, 1-31.



Ahrens, H.E. 2012. Craniodental characters and the relationships of Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 164, 669-713

Manatee Teeth

Beatty, B.L., Vitkovski, T., Lambert, O., and Macrini, T.E. 2012. Osteological associations with unique tooth development in manatees (Trichechidae, Sirenia): a detailed look at modern Trichechus and a review of the fossil record. The Anatomical Record, 295, 1504-1512.

Horned Lizards

Bergmann, P.J., and Berk, C.P. 2012. The evolution of positive allometry of weaponry in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Evolutionary Biology, 39, 311-323.

Anguimorphan Phylogeny

Bhullar, B.-A.S. 2012. A phylogenetic approach to ontogeny and heterochrony in the fossil record: cranial evolution and development in anguimorphan lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 318, 521-530.


Bhullar, B.-A.S., Marugán-Lobón, J., Racio, F., Bever, G.S., Rowe, T.B., Norell, M.A., and Abzhanov, A. 2012. Birds have paedomorphic dinosaur skulls. Nature, 487, 223-226.

Weird Bird Wings

Bostwick, K.S., Riccio, M.L., and Humphries, J.M. 2012. Massive, solidified bone in the wing of a volant courting bird. Biology Letters, 8, 760-763.

Biological Materials

Chen, P.-Y., McKittrick, J., and Meyers, M.A. 2012. Biological materials: functional adaptations and bioinspired designs. Progress in Materials Sciences, 57, 1492-1704.

Early Cretaceous Mammals

Davis, B.M. 2012. Micro-computed tomography reveals a diversity of Peramuran mammals from the Purbeck Group (Berriasian) of England. Palaeontology, 55, 789-817.

Gecko Skulls

Daza, J.D., and Bauer, A.M. 2012. Temporal bones of the Gekkota support molecular relationships within the Pygopodoidea. Journal of Herpetology, 46, 381-386.

Iguanian Phylogeny

Daza, J.D., Abdala, V., Arias, J.S., García-López, D., and Ortiz, P. 2012. Cladistic analysis of Iguania and a fossil lizard from the Late Pliocene of northwestern Argentina. Journal of Herpetology, 46, 104-119.

Chimaeroid Breathing

Dean, M.N., Summers, A.P., and Ferry, L.A. 2012. Very low pressures drive ventilatory flow in chimaeroid fishes. Journal of Morphology, 273, 461-479.

Squamate Evolution

Gauthier, J.A., Kearney, M., Maisano, J.A., Rieppel, O., and Behlke, A.D.B. 2012. Assembling the squamate tree of life: perspectives from the phenotype and the fossil record. Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 53, 3-308.

Bat Noses

Giannini, N.P., Macrini, T.E., Wible, J.R., Rowe, T.B., and Simmons, N.B. 2012. The internal nasal skeleton of the bat Pteropus lylei K. Andersen, 1908 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Annals of Carnegie Museum, 81, 1-17.

Carnivoran Noses

Green, P.A., Van Valkenburgh, B., Pang, B., Bird, D., Rowe, T., and Curtis, A. 2012. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans. Journal of Anatomy, 221, 609-621.

Evolution of Flight

Heers, A.M., and Dial, K.P. 2012. From extant to extinct: locomotor ontogeny and the evolution of avian flight. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27, 296-305.

Penguin Brain Evolution

Ksepka, D.T., Balanoff, A.M., Walsh, S., Revan, A., and Ho, A. 2012. Evolution of the brain and sensory organs in Sphenisciformes: new data from the stem penguin Paraptenodytes antarcticus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166, 202-219.

Carnivoran Diets

Kupczik, K., and Stynder, D.D. 2012. Tooth root morphology as an indicator for dietary specialization in carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 105, 456-471

Transitional Snake

Longrich, N.R., Bhullar, B-A.S., and Gauthier, J.A. 2012. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. Nature, 488, 205-208.

Armored Catfishes

Lujan, N.K., and Armbruster, J.W. 2012. Morphological and functional diversity of the mandible in suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Journal of Morphology, 273, 24-39.

Marsupial Noses

Macrini, T.E. 2012. Comparative morphology of the internal nasal skeleton of adult marsupials based on X-ray computed tomography. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 365, 1-91.

Monstersauria Osteoderms

Mead, J.I., Schubert, B.W., Wallace, S.C., and Swift, S.L. 2012. Helodermatid lizard from the Mio-Pliocene oak-hickory forest of Tennessee, eastern USA, and a review of Monstersauria osteoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57, 111-121.


Oldfield, C.C., McHenry, C.R., Clausen, P.D., Chamoli, U., Parr, W.C.H., Stynder, D.D., and Wroe, S. 2012. Finite element analysis of ursid cranial mechanics and the prediction of feeding behaviour in the extinct giant Agriotherium africanum. Journal of Zoology, 286, 163-170.

Uropeltid Snakes

Olori, J.C., and Bell, C.J. 2012. Comparative skull morphology of uropeltid snakes (Alethinophidia: Uropeltidae) with special reference to disarticulated elements and variation. PLoS ONE, 7, e32450.

Finite Element Analysis

Parr, W.C.H., Wroe, S., Chamoli, U., Richards, H.S., McCurry, M.R., Clausen, P.D., and McHenry, C. 2012. Toward integration of geometric morphometrics and computational biomechanics: new methods for 3D virtual reconstruction and quantitative analysis of Finite Element Models. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 301, 1-14.

Ape Phylogeny

Pérez de los Ríos, M., Moyŕ-Solŕ, S., and Alba, D.M. 2012. The nasal and paranasal architecture of the Middle Miocene ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus (primates: Hominidae): phylogenetic implications. Journal of Human Evolution, 63, 497-506.

Early Tetrapods

Pierce, S.E., Clack, J.A., and Hutchinson, J.R. 2012. Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature, 486, 523-526.

Bird Brains

Smith, N.A., and Clarke, J.A. 2012. Endocranial anatomy of the Charadriiformes: sensory system variation and the evolution of wing-propelled diving. PLoS One, 7(11), e49584.

Tiny Salamanders

Wake, D.B., Rovito, S.M., Maisano, J.A., and Hanken, J. 2012 Taxonomic status of the enigmatic salamander Cryptotriton adelos (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) from northern Oaxaca, Mexico, with observations on its skull and postcranial skeleton. Zootaxa, 3579, 67-70.

Getting Hammered

Weaver, J.C., Milliron, G.W., Miserez, A., Evans-Lutterodt, K., Herrera, S., Gallana, I., Mershon, W.J., Swanson, B., Zavattieri, P., DiMasi, E., and Kisailus, D. 2012. The stomatopod dactyl club: a formidable damage-tolerant biological hammer. Science, 336, 1275-1280.

Diplodocoid Vertebrae

Woodruff, D.C., and Fowler, D.W. 2012. Ontogenetic influence on neural spine bifurcation in diplodocoidea (Dinosauria: Sauropoda): a critical phylogenetic character. Journal of Morphology, 273, 754-764.

Focal Palatine Erosion

Zordan, M., Deem, S.L., and Sanchez, C.R. 2012. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species. Zoo Biology, 31, 181-188.



Bever, G.S., Brusatte, S.L., Balanoff, A.M., and Norell, M.A. 2011. Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: Insights from the anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea). PLoS ONE, 6(8), e23393.

Xenosaurus Phylogeny

Bhullar, B.-A.S. 2011. The power and utility of morphological characters in systematics: a fully resolved phylogeny of Xenosaurus and its fossil relatives (Squamata: Anguimorpha). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 160, 65-181.

Felid Skulls

Chamoli, U., and Wroe, S. 2011. Allometry in the distribution of material properties and geometry of the felid skull: why larger species may need to change and how they may achieve it. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 283, 217-226.

Basal Monstersaur

Conrad, J.L., Rieppel, O., Gauthier, J.A., and Norell, M.A. 2011. Osteology of Gobiderma pulchrum (Monstersauria, Lepidosauria, Reptilia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 362, 1-88.

Tuatara Feeding

Curtis, N., Jones, M.E.H., Shi, J., O'Higgins, P., Evans, S.E., and Fagan, M.J. 2011. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in Sphenodon, and implications for diapsid skull development. PLoS ONE, 6(12), e29804.

Asian Elephant

Ferretti, M.P., and Debruyne, R. 2011. Anatomy and phylogenetic value of the mandibular and coronoid canals and their associated foramina in proboscideans (Mammalia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 161, 391-413.

Frog Muscles

Johnston, P. 2011. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes. Journal of Morphology, 272, 1492-1512.

Intracranial Joint

Johnston, P. 2011. Cross-sectional imaging in comparative vertebrate morphology - the intracranial joint of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, p. 259-274. In Saba, L. (editor), Computed Tomography - Special Applications. InTech, Croatia.

Tooth Root Morphology

Kupczik, K., and Stynder, D.D. 2012. Tooth root morphology as an indicator for dietary specialization in carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 105, 456-471.


Miralles, A., Köhler, J., Vieites, D.R., Glaw, F., and Vences, M. 2011. Hypotheses on rostral shield evolution in fossorial lizards derived from the phylogenetic position of a new species of Paracontias (Squamata, Scincidae). Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 11, 135-150.

Amphisbaenian Evolution

Müller, J., Hipsley, C.A., Head, J.J., Kardjilov, N., Hilger, A., Wuttke, M., and Reisz, R.R. 2011. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature, 473, 364-367.

Turtle Shell Shape

Rivera, G., and Stayton, C.T. 2011. Finite element modeling of shell shape in the freshwater turtle Pseudemys concinna reveals a trade-off between mechanical strength and hydrodynamic efficiency. Journal of Morphology, 272, 1192-1203.

Mammal Brain Evolution

Rowe, T.B., Macrini, T.E., and Luo, Z.-X. 2011. Fossil evidence on origin of the mammalian brain. Science, 332, 955-957.

New Sauropod

Rowe, T.B., Sues, H.-D., and Reisz, R.R. 2011. Dispersal and diversity in the earliest North American sauropodomorph dinosaurs, with a description of a new taxon. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1044-1053.

Felid Skull Morphology

Sicuro, F.L., and Oliveira, F.B. 2011. Skull morphology and functionality of extant felidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): a phylogenetic and evolutionary perspective. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 161, 414-462.


Smith, T.D., Eiting, T.P., and Rossie, J.B. 2011. Distribution of olfactory and nonolfactory surface area in the nasal fossa of Microcebus murinus: implications for microcomputed tomography and airflow studies. The Anatomical Record, 294, 1217-1225.

Turtle Shell Shape

Stayton, C.T. 2011. Biomechanics on the half shell: functional performance influences patterns of morphological variation in the emydid turtle carapace. Zoology, 114, 213-223.

Cranial Pneumaticity

Tahara, R., and Larsson, H.C.E. 2011. Cranial pneumatic anatomy of Ornithomimus edmontonicus (Ornithomimidae: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31, 127-143.

Bone-cracking Carnivorans

Tseng, Z.J., Antón, M., and Salesa, M.J. 2011. The evolution of the bone-cracking model in carnivorans: cranial functional morphology of the Plio-Pleistocene cursorial hyaenid Chasmaporthetes lunensis (Mammalia: Carnivora). Paleobiology, 37, 140-156.

Cranial Shape Evolution

Tseng, Z.J., and Wang, X. 2011. Do convergent ecomorphs evolve through convergent morphological pathways? Cranial shape evolution in fossil hyaenids and borophagine canids (Carnivora, Mammalia). Paleobiology, 37, 470-489.

Turtle Shells

Vega, C., and Stayton, C.T. 2011. Dimorphism in shell shape and strength in two species of emydid turtle. Herpetologica, 67, 397-405.


Yoon, S.-H., and Park, S. 2011. A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems. Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, 6.


Zanno, L.E., and Makovicky, P.J. 2011. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 232-237.


Sauropod Dinosaur

Balanoff, A.M., Bever, G.S., and Ikejiri, T. 2010. The braincase of Apatosaurus (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) based on computed tomography of a new specimen with comments on variation and evolution in sauropod neuroanatomy. American Museum Novitates, 3677, 1-32.

Korean Salamander

Buckley, D.B., Wake, M.H., and Wake. D.B. 2010. Comparative skull osteology of Karsenia koreana (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae). Journal of Morphology, 271, 533-558.

Fossil Primate

Coleman, M.N., Kay, R.F., and Colbert, M.W. 2010. Auditory morphology and hearing sensitivity in fossil New World monkeys. The Anatomical Record, 293, 1711-1721.

Geometric Morphometrics

Couette, S., and White, J. 2010. 3D geometric morphometrics and missing-data. Can extant taxa give clues for the analysis of fossil primates? Comptes Rendus Palevol, 9, 423-433.

Feeding Behavior

Degrange, F.J., Tambussi, C.P., Moreno, K., Witmer, L.M., and Wroe, S. 2010. Mechanical analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct "Terror Bird" Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae). PLoS ONE, 5(8), e11856.


Ekdale, E.G. 2010. Ontogenetic variation in the bony labyrinth of Monodelphis domestica (Mammalia: Marsupialia) following ossification of the inner ear cavities. The Anatomical Record, 293, 1896-1912.

Harelip Sucker

Fink, W.L., and Humphries, J.H. 2010. Morphological description of the extinct North American sucker Moxostoma lacerum (Ostariophysi, Catostomidae), based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Copeia, 2010, 5-13.

Ungulate Jaws

Fletcher, T.M., Janis, C.M., and Rayfield, E.J. 2010. Finite element analysis of ungulate jaws: can mode of digestive physiology be determined? Palaeontologia Electronica, 13.2.21A.

Squamate Tooth Development

Handrigan, G.R., and Richman, J.M. 2010. Autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling are necessary for tooth morphogenesis, but not tooth replacement in snakes and lizards (Squamata). Developmental Biology, 337, 171-186.


Johnston, P. 2010. The constrictor dorsalis musculature and basipterygoid articulation in Sphenodon. Journal of Morphology, 271, 280-292.

Pug-nosed Croc

Kley, N.J., Sertich, J.J.W., Turner, A.H., Krause, D.W., O'Connor, P.M., and Georgi, J.A. 2010. Craniofacial morphology of Simosuchus clarki (Crocodyliformes: Notosuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Memoir 10, 30(6 Supplement), 13-98.

Madtsoiid Snake

Laduke, T.C., Krause, D.W., Scanlon, J.D., and Kley, N.J. 2010. A Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) snake assemblage from the Maevarano Formation, Mahajanga Basin, Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30, 109-138.

Fossil Bird

Milner, A.C., and Walsh, S.A. 2010. Avian brain evolution: new data from Palaeogene birds (Lower Eocene) from England. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155, 198-219.

Stroke in Mice

Mostany, R., Chowdhury, T.G., Johnston, D.G., Portonovo, S.A., Carmichael, S.T., and Portera-Cailliau, C. 2010. Local hemodynamics dictate long-term dendritic plasticity in peri-infarct cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 14116-14126.

Fossil Primates

Perry, J.M.G., Kay, R.F., Vizcaíno, S.F., and Bargo, S. 2010. Tooth root size, chewing muscle leverage, and the biology of Homunculus patagonicus (Primates) from the late early Miocene of Patagonia. Ameghiniana, 47, 355-371.

Bat Echolocation

Simmons, N.B., Seymour, K.L., Habersetzer, J., and Gunnell, G.F. 2010. Inferring echolocation in ancient bats. Nature, 466, E8.

Polar Bear Evolution

Slater, G.J., Figueirido, B., Louis, L., Yang, P., and Van Valkenburgh, B. 2010. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage. PLoS ONE, 5(11), e13870.

Nasal Apertures

Torregrosa, V., Petrucci, M., Pérez-Claros, J.A., and Palmqvist, P. 2010. Nasal aperture area and body mass in felids: ecophysiological implications and paleobiological inferences. Geobios, 43, 653-661.

Focused Ultrasound

Tung, Y.-S., Choi, J.J., Baseri, B., and Konofagou, E.E. 2010. Identifying the inertial cavitation threshold and skull effects in a vessel phantom using focused ultrasound and microbubbles. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 36, 840-852.

New Caecilian

Wake, M.H., and Donnelly, M.A. 2010. A new lungless caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) from Guyana. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277, 915-922.

Cobra Hoods

Young, B.A., and Kardong, K.V. 2010. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213, 1521-1528.


Theropod Dinosaur

Balanoff, A.M., Xu, X., Kobayashi, Y., Matsufune, Y., and Norell, M.A. 2009. Cranial osteology of the theropod dinosaur Incisivosaurus gauthieri (Theropoda: Oviraptorosauria). American Museum Novitates, 3651, 1-35.


Clement, G., Snitting, D., and Ahlberg, P.E. 2009. A new tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Upper Famennian Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium. Palaeontology, 52, 823-836.


Coleman, J.L. 2009. A strange tale of taillessness in a vespertilionid bat. Acta Chiropterologica, 11, 212-215.


Curtis, N., Jones, M.E.H., Evans, S.E., O'Higgins, P., and Fagan, M.J. 2009. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12.3.7T.

Bottlenose Dolphin

Dible, S.A., Flint, J.A., and Lepper, P.A. 2009. On the role of periodic structures in the lower jaw of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 4, 015005.

Earless Monitor

Head, J.J., Barrett, P.M., and Rayfield, E.J. 2009. Neurocranial osteology and systematic relationships of Varanus (Megalania) prisca Owen, 1859 (Squamata: Varanidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155, 445-457.

New Frog Family

Heinicke, M.P., Duellman, W.E., Trueb, L., Means, D.B., MacCulloch, R.D., and Hedges, S.B. 2009. A new frog family (Anura: Terrarana) from South America and an expanded direct-developing clade revealed by molecular phylogeny. Zootaxa, 2211, 1-35.


Jones, M.E.H., Curtis, N., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M., and Evans, S.E. 2009. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12.2.7A.

Helmet Catfish

Luckenbill, K.R., and Lundberg, J.G. 2009. CAT scan-based images of the skeleton of the Asian catfish Cranoglanis (Siluriformes: Cranoglanididae). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 158, 297-299.


Macrini, T.E. 2009. Description of a digital cranial endocast of Bathygenys reevesi (Merycoidodontidae; Oreodontoidea) and implications for apomorphy-based diagnosis of isolated, natural endocasts. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29, 1199-1211.

Skull Sutures

U:, M., Curtis, N., O'Higgins, P., Evans, S.E., and Fagan, M.J. 2009. Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull: a computer modelling study. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 276, 39-46.

Theropod Dinosaurs

Norell, M.A., Makovicky, P.J., Bever, G.S., Balanoff, A.M., Clark, J.M., Barsbold, R., and Rowe, T. 2009. A review of the Mongolian Cretaceous dinosaur Saurornithoides (Troodontidae: Theropoda). American Museum Novitates, 3654, 1-63.

New Anglerfish

Pietsch, T.W., Johnson, J.W., and Arnold, R.J. 2009. A new genus and species of the shallow-water anglerfish family Tetrabrachiidae (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennarioidei) from Australia and Indonesia. Copeia, 2009, 483-493.

Primitive Snakes

Rieppel, O., Kley, N.J., and Maisano, J.A. 2009. Morphology of the skull of the white-nosed blindsnake, Liotyphlops albirostris (Scolecophidia: Anomalepididae). Journal of Morphology, 270, 536-557.


Smith, K.T. 2009. Eocene lizards of the clade Geiseltaliellus from Messel and Geiseltal, Germany, and the early radiation of Iguanidae (Reptilia: Squamata). Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 50, 219-306.

Geometric Morphometrics

Stayton, C.T. 2009. Application of thin-plate spline transformations to finite element models, or, how to turn a bog turtle into a spotted turtle to analyze both. Evolution, 63-5, 1348-1355.


Dinosaur Egg

Balanoff, A.M., Norell, M.A., Grellet-Tinner, G., and Lewin, M.R. 2008. Digital preparation of a probable neoceratopsian preserved within an egg, with comments on microstructural anatomy of ornithischian eggshells. Naturwissenschaften, 95, 493-500.

Armored Fish

Bruet, B.J.F, Song, J., Boyce, M.C., and Ortiz, C. 2008. Materials design principles of ancient fish armour. Nature Materials, 7, 748-756.

Fossil Turtle

Cadena, E., Jaramillo, C., and Paramo, M.E. 2008. New material of Chelus colombiana (Testudines; Pleurodira) from the Lower Miocene of Colombia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28, 1206-1212.

Squamate Systematics

Conrad, J.L. 2008. Phylogeny and systematics of Squamata (Reptilia) based on morphology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 310, 1-182.

Volumetric Rendering

Gobbetti, E., Marton, F., and Guitián, J.A.I. 2008. A single-pass GPU ray casting framework for interactive out-of-core rendering of massive volumetric datasets. The Visual Computer, 24, 797-806.


Horovitz, I., Ladevčze, S., Argot, C., Macrini, T.E., Martin, T., Hooker, J.J., Kurz, C., de Muizon, C., and Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. 2008. The anatomy of Herpetotherium cf. fugax COPE, 1873, a metatherian from the Oligocene of North America. Palaeontographica Abteilung A, 284, 109-141.

Spotted Ratfish

Huber, D.R., Dean, M.N., and Summers, A.P. 2008. Hard prey, soft jaws and the ontogeny of feeding mechanics in the spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 5, 941-952.


Jones, M.E.H. 2008. Skull shape and feeding strategy in Sphenodon and other Rhynchocephalia (Diapsida: Lepidosauria). Journal of Morphology, 269, 945-966.

FEA Analysis

Moazen, M., Curtis, N., Evans, S.E., O'Higgins, P., and Fagan, M.J. 2008. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508.

Rigid-body Dynamic Analysis

Moazen, M., Curtis, N., Evans, S.E., O'Higgins, P., and Fagan, M.J. 2008. Rigid-body analysis of a lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41, 1274-1280.

Hominin Skull Evolution

Nevell, L., and Wood, B. 2008. Cranial base evolution within the hominin clade. Journal of Anatomy, 212, 455-468.

5 New Chromis Species

Pyle, R.L., Earle, J.L., and Greene, B.D. 2008. Five new species of the damselfish genus Chromis (Perciformes: Labroidei: Pomacentridae) from deep coral reefs in the tropical western Pacific. Zootaxa, 1671, 3-31.

Three-toed Sloth

Rattenborg, N.C., Voirin, B., Vyssotski, A.L., Kays, R.W., Spoelstra, K., Kuemmeth, F., Heidrich, W., and Wikelski, M. 2008. Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest. Biology Letters, 4, 402-405.

Snake Naso-frontal Joint

Rieppel, O. 2008. The naso-frontal joint in snakes as revealed by high-resolution X-ray computed tomography of intact and complete skulls. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 246, 177-191.

Squamate Dermal Palate

Rieppel, O., Gauthier, J., and Maisano, J. 2008. Comparative morphology of the dermal palate in squamate reptiles, with comments on phylogenetic implications. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 152, 131-152.

Brown Lemur

Ross, C.F. 2008. Does the primate face torque? In C. Vinyard, M.J. Ravosa, and C. Wall (eds.) Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology. Springer US. Pp. 63-81.

Fossil Platypus

Rowe, T., Rich, T.H., Vickers-Rich, P., Springer, M., and Woodburne, M.O. 2008. The oldest platypus and its bearing on divergence timing of the platypus and echidna clades. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 1238-1242.

Catfish Phylogeny

Vigliotta, T.R. 2008. A phylogenetic study of the African catfish family Mochokidae (Osteichthyes, Ostariophysi, Siluriformes), with a key to genera. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 157, 73-136.


Elephant Bird

Balanoff, A.M., and Rowe, T. 2007. Osteological description of an embryonic skeleton of the extinct elephant bird, Aepyornis (Palaeognathae: Ratitae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 9, 27(4 Supplement), 1-53.

House Mouse

Choi, J.J., Pernot, M., Small, S.A., and Konofagou, E.E. 2007. Noninvasive, transcranial and localized opening of the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound in mice. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 33, 95-104.

Batoid Fishes

Dean, M.N., Bizzarro, J.J., and Summers, A.P. 2007. The evolution of cranial design, diet, and feeding mechanisms in batoid fishes. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47, 70-81.


Giannini, N.P., and Simmons, N.B. 2007. The chiropteran premaxilla: a reanalysis of morphological variation and its phylogenetic interpretation. American Museum Novitates, 3585, 1-44.


Hsiou, A.S., Fortier, D.C. 2007. Primeiro registro de Caiman (Crocodilya Alligatoridae) para o Pleistoceno do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Unisinas 3, 37-44.

Fossil Marsupial

Macrini, T.E., de Muizon, C., Cifelli, R.L., and Rowe, T. 2007. Digital cranial endocast of Pucadelphys andinus, a Paleocene metatherian. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27, 99-107.

Therian Mammal

Macrini, T.E., Rougier, G.W., and Rowe, T. 2007. Description of a cranial endocast from the fossil mammal Vincelestes neuquenianus (Theriiformes) and its relevance to the evolution of endocranial characters in therians. The Anatomical Record, 290, 875-892.


Macrini, T.E., Rowe, T., and VandeBerg, J.L. 2007. Cranial endocasts from a growth series of Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae, Marsupialia): a study of individual and ontogenetic variation. Journal of Morphology, 268, 844-865.

Bolyeriid Snake

Maisano, J.A., and Rieppel, O. 2007. The skull of the Round Island boa, Casarea dussumieri Schlegel, based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Journal of Morphology, 268, 371-384.

Caprinid Rudist

Molineux, A., Scott, R.W., Ketcham, R.A., and Maisano, J.A. 2007. Rudist taxonomy using X-ray computed tomography. Palaeontologia Electronica 10.3.13A.

Plated Lizard

Nance, H.A. 2007. Cranial osteology of the African gerrhosaurid Angolosaurus skoogi (Squamata; Gerrhosauridae). African Journal of Herpetology, 56, 39-75.

Mantis Shrimp

Patek, S.N., Nowroozi, B.N., Baio, J.E., Caldwell, R.I., and Summers, A.P. 2007. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210, 3677-3688


Rieppel, O., Conrad, J.L., and Maisano, J.A. 2007. New morphological data for Eosaniwa koehni Haubold, 1977 and a revised phylogenetic hypothesis. Journal of Paleontology, 81, 760-769.

Anomochilid Snake

Rieppel, O., and Maisano, J.A. 2007. The skull of the rare Malaysian snake Anomochilus leonardi Smith, based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149, 671-685.

Sauropod Dinosaur

Sereno, P.C., Wilson, J.A., Witmer, L.A., Whitlock, J.A., Maga, A., Ide, O., and Rowe, T.B. 2007. Structural extremes in a Cretaceous dinosaur. PLoS ONE, 2(11), e1230.

New Wrasse Species

Weaver, D.C., and Rocha, L.A. 2007. A new species of Halichoeres (Teleostei: Labridae) from the Western Gulf of Mexico. Copeia, 2007, 798-807.


Tetrapod-like Fish Ear

Brazeau, M.D. and Ahlberg, P.E. 2006. Tetrapod-like middle ear architecture in a Devonian fish. Nature, 439, 318-321.

Fossil Turtle

Brinkman, D., Hart, M., Jamniczky, H., and Colbert, M. 2006. Nichollsemys baieri gen. et sp. nov, a primitive chelonioid turtle from the late Campanian of North America. Paludicola, 5, 111-124.

Fossil Tapir

Colbert, M.W. 2006. Hesperaletes (Mammalia: Perissodactyla), a new tapiroid from the Middle Eocene of southern California. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23, 697-711.

Cretaceous Gekkonomorph

Conrad, J.L., and M.A. Norell. 2006. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography of an Early Cretaceous gekkonomorph (Squamata) from Öösh (Övörkhangai; Mongolia). Historical Biology, 18, 405-431.

Mosasauroid Lizard

Evans, S.E., Manabe, M., Noro, M., Isaji, S., and Yamaguchi, M. 2006. A long-bodied lizard from the Lower Cretaceous of Japan. Palaeontology, 49, 1143-1165.

Caribbean Flamingo

Holliday, C.M., Ridgely, R.C., Balanoff, A.M., and Witmer, L.M. 2006. Cephalic vascular anatomy in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on novel vascular injection and computed tomographic imaging analyses. Anatomical Record, 288A, 1031-1041.

Texas Blind Snake

Kley, N.J. 2006. Morphology of the lower jaw and suspensorium in the Texas blindsnake, Leptotyphlops dulcis (Scolecophidia: Leptotyphlopidae). Journal of Morphology, 267, 494-515.

Fossil Turtle

Lipka, T.R., Therrien, F., Weishampel, D.B., Jamniczky, H.A., Joyce, W.G., Colbert, M.W., and Brinkman, D.B. 2006. A new turtle from the Arundel Clay Facies (Potomac Formation, Early Crtaceous) of Maryland, U.S.A. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26, 300-307.

Fossil Platypus

Macrini, T., Rowe, T., and Archer, M. 2006. Description of a cranial endocast from a fossil platypus, Obdurodon dicksoni (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae), and the relevance of endocranial characters to monotreme monophyly. Journal of Morphology, 267, 1000-1015.

Lizard Teeth

Mahler, D.L., and Kearney, M. 2006. The palatal dentition in squamate reptiles: morphology, development, attachment, and replacement. Fieldiana Zoology, 108, 1-61.

Zarudnyi's Worm Lizard

Maisano, J.A., Kearney, M., and Rowe, T. 2006. Cranial anatomy of the spade-headed amphisbaenian Diplometopon zarudnyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Journal of Morphology, 267, 70-102.

Theropod Dinosaur

Norell, M., Clark, J.M., Turner, A.H., Makovicky, P.J., Barsbold, R., and Rowe, T. 2006. A new dromaeosaurid theropod from Ukhaa Tolgod (Ömnögov, Mongolia). American Museum Novitates, 3545, 1-51.


Chinese Crocodile Lizard

Bever, G.S., Bell, C.J., and Maisano, J.A. 2005. The ossified braincase and cephalic osteoderms of Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Squamata, Shinisauridae). Palaeontologia Electronica 8:4A:36p.

Nursery Fish

Carpenter, K.E., Berra, T.M., and Humphries, J.M., Jr. 2004. Swim bladder and posterior lateral line nerve of the nurseryfish, Kurtus gulliveri (Perciformes: Kurtidae). Journal of Morphology, 260, 193-200.

Fossil Bird

Clarke, J.A., Tambussi, C.P., Noriega, J.I., Erickson, G.M., and Ketcham, R.A. 2005. Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous. Nature, 433, 305-308.


Clifford, A.B., and Witmer, L.M. 2004. Case studies in novel narial anatomy: 2. the enigmatic nose of moose (Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Alces alces). Journal of Zoology, 262, 339-360.

Saiga Antelope

Clifford, A.B., and Witmer, L.M. 2004. Case studies in novel narial anatomy: 3. Structure and function of the nasal cavity of saiga (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Saiga tatarica. Journal of Zoology, 264, 217-230.

Fossil Tapir

Colbert, M.W. 2005. The facial skeleton of the early Oligocene Colodon (Perissodactyla, Tapiroidea). Palaeontologia Electronica, 8:12A:27p.

Bottlenose Dolphin

Colbert, M.W., Racicot, R., and Rowe, T. 2005. Anatomy of the cranial endocast of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, based on HRXCT. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 12, 195-207.

Fossil Avialan

Dominguez Alonso, P., Milner, A.C., Ketcham, R.A., Cookson, M.J., and Rowe, T.B. 2004. The avian nature of the brain and inner ear of Archaeopteryx. Nature, 430, 666-669. (Associated news stories: National Geographic, National Public Radio, and San Francisco Chronicle)

Fossil Salamander

Evans, S.E., Lally, C., Elder, A., and Maisano, J.A. 2005. A late Jurassic salamander (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Morrison Formation of North America. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143, 599-616.

Theropod Dinosaur

Franzosa, J., and Rowe, T. 2005. Cranial endocast of the Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 85, 859-864.

Shark Bite Force

Huber, D.R., Eason, T.G., Hueter, R.E., and Motta, P.J. 2005. Analysis of the bite force and mechanical design of the feeding mechanism of the durophagous horn shark Heterodontus francisci. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 3553-3571.

Fossil Primate

Kay, R.F., Campbell, V.M., Rossie, J.B., Colbert, M.W., and Rowe, T.B. 2004. Olfactory fossa of Tremacebus harringtoni (Platyrrhini, Early Miocene, Sacanana, Argentina): implications for activity pattern. Anatomical Record Part A, 281A, 1157-1172.

Fossil Amphisbaenian

Kearney, M., Maisano, J.A., and Rowe, T. 2005. Cranial anatomy of the extinct amphisbaenian Rhineura hatcherii (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Journal of Morphology, 264, 1-33.

Broadnose Sevengill Shark

Maisey, J.G. 2004. Morphology of the braincase in the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus (Elasmobranchii, Hexanchiformes), based on CT scanning. American Museum Novitates, 3429, 1-52.


Metzger, K.A., Daniel, W.J.T., and Ross, C.F. 2005. Comparison of beam theory and finite-element analysis with in vivo bone strain data from the alligator cranium. The Anatomical Record Part A, 283A, 331-348.

Snake with Legs

Polcyn, M.J., Jacobs, L.L., and Haber, A. 2005. A morphological model and CT assessment of the skull of Pachyrhachis problematicus (Squamata, Serpentes), a 98 million year old snake with legs from the Middle East. Palaeontologia Electronica, 8(1) 26A:24p.

Chiapas Catfish

Rodiles-Hernández, R., Hendrickson, D., Lundberg, J., and Humphries, J. 2005. Lacantunia enigmatica (Teleostei: Siluriformes) a new and phylogenetically puzzling freshwater fish from Mesoamerica. Zootaxa, 1000, 1-24.

Possum Noses

Rowe, T.B., Eiting, T.P., Macrini, T.E., and Ketcham, R.A. 2005. Organization of the olfactory and respiratory skeleton in the nose of the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 12, 303-336.


Horn Shark

Summers, A.P., Ketcham, R.A., and Rowe, T. 2004. Structure and function of the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) cranium through ontogeny: development of a hard prey specialist. Journal of Morphology, 260, 1-12.

Carnivoran Noses

Van Valkenburgh, B., Theodor, J., Friscia, A., and Rowe, T. 2004. Respiratory turbinates of canids and felids: a quantitative comparison. Journal of Zoology, London, 264, 281-293.

Fossil Chiton

Vendrasco, M.J., Wood, T.E., and Runnegar, B.N. 2004. Articulated Palaeozoic fossil with 17 plates greatly expands disparity of early chitons. Nature, 429, 288-291.

Domestic Pig - Knee

Witmer, L.M., Ridgely, R., Mayle, H., and Adams, D. 2004. The best of both worlds: integrating CT and MR. RT Image, 17, 16-19.


Amphisbaenian Phylogeny

Kearney, M. 2003. Systematics of the Amphisbaenia (Lepidosauria: Squamata) based on morphological evidence from recent and fossil forms. Herpetological Monographs, 17, 1-74.

Theropod Dinosaur

Mackovicky, P.J., Norell, M.A., Clark, J.M., and Rowe, T. 2003. Osteology and relationships of Byronosaurus jaffei (Theropoda: Troodontidae). American Museum Novitates, 3402, 1-32.


Stuppy, W.H., Maisano, J.A., Colbert, M.W., and Rowe, T.B. 2003. Three-dimensional analysis of plant structure using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Trends in Plant Science, 8, 2-6.


Witmer, L.M., Chatterjee, S., Franzosa, J., and Rowe, T. 2003. Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour. Nature, 425, 950-953.


Oviraptorid Dinosaur

Clark, J.M., Norell, M.A., and Rowe, T. 2002. Cranial anatomy of Citipati osmolskae (Theropoda, Oviratorosauria), a reinterpretation of the holotype of Oviraptor philocertops. American Museum Novitates, 3364, 1-24.

Fossil Mitrate

Dominguez, P., Jacobson, A.G., and Jefferies, R.P.S. 2002. Paired gill slits in a fossil with a calcite skeleton. Nature, 417, 841-844.

Fossil Turtles

Gaffney, E.S., Tong, H., and Meylan, P.A. 2002. Galianemys, a new side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the late Cretaceous of Morocco. American Museum Novitates, 3379, 1-20.

Earless 'Monitor' Lizard

Maisano, J.A., Bell, C.J., Gauthier, J.A., and Rowe, R. 2002. The osteoderms and palpebral in Lanthanotus borneensis (Squamata: Anguimorpha). Journal of Herpetology, 36, 678-682.

Lizard in Amber

Polcyn, M.J., Rogers, J.V.J., Kobayashi, Y., and Jacobs, L.L. 2002. Computed tomography of an Anolis lizard in Dominican amber: systematic, taphonomic, biogeographic, and evolutionary implications. Palaeontologia Electronica, 5, 13.

Fossil Crocodiliform

Tykoski, R.S., Rowe, T.B., Ketcham, R.A., and Colbert, M.W. 2002. Calsoyasuchus valliceps, a new crocodyliform from the early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22, 593-611.


American Alligator

Rowe, T., Brochu, C.A., and Kishi, K. (eds.). 1999. Cranial morphology of Alligator mississippiensis and phylogeny of Alligatoroidea. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 6, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(supplement to 2), 1-100.


Fossil Cynodont

Rowe, T., Carlson, W., and Bottorff, W. 1995. Thrinaxodon: Digital Atlas of the Skull. CD-ROM, 2nd ed., University of Texas Press, 547 mb.

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